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George Baxter's business, personal and associated addresses
Baxter lived and worked from a number of different addresses between his birth in July 1804 until his death in January 1867. For the first time all his known addresses (along with a few new ones) are now appearing in one place. If you know of any others, please contact me to add. All the addresses are in London unless stated to the contrary. The basic information comes from Courtney Lewis's 'The Picture Printer' - citation for any additional information is stated when known. Other information is from personal research. Addresses where Baxter published any of his colour prints are highlighted in bold.
37 High Street, Lewes - 1804 - 1828 - Baxter was born at this address over his father's shop (Baxter Colour Prints by Clarke 1919) - the advert to the right appears in his father's publication 'Baxter's Select Sketches in Brighton' published by J Baxter 1827. In 1825 he spent a 'few months' as an apprentice to Samuel Williams of London where he enhanced his artistic skills by learning the art of wood engraving. A recently found advert for his father's business in the Sussex Advertiser Feb 11 1828 states "The Engraving Department, by his son, G Baxter" so places Baxter still in Lewes at that time.
St. Anns Lewes - Aug (?) 1827 - According to his brother, writing in 1853, he was at this address for a few months after his Marriage on 23rd August 1827, before he moved to Charlotte Street (CL - The Picture Printer 1924). This goes against Clarke's view in 1919 (see under Charlotte Street) and helps to confirm that the move to Charlotte Street was more likely Feb 1828 which would then make sense.
11 Great Distaff Lane - 1827/8 - This is Robert Harrild's business address which Harrild had moved to in 1827. Harrild was a friend of Baxter's father and Baxter met his future wife, Harrild's daughter, while staying with him some time earlier. As he was married on 23rd August 1827, any reference to this address could be when Baxter first moved to London with his new wife while waiting for his move to Charlotte Street, that would also explain why the move is noted in Harrild's ledgers. It is said some woodcuts show this address. It could also just be an accommodation address, using his father-in-law's address to 'test the water' for a new business in the capital city whilst still residing in Lewes.
11(?) Charlotte Street, Blackfriars Road - Feb 1828 - Baxter's first business address in London. Baxter Colour Prints - Clarke 1919 states the date as Feb 1827 and that the date was taken from Robert Harrild's ledgers but I feel this is incorrect. CL who detailed a letter by William Edwin Baxter, George's brother, on page 47 of the Picture Printer 1924, where he states his brother moved to this address soon after his marriage. This along with other information found for High Street Lewes and St Anns above helps to confirm this.
17 John Street, Waterloo Bridge near St John Church - 23rd May 1829 (by) - An advert appears in the Literary Gazette of this date 'Apprentice Wanted' and asked to apply to Mr G Baxter at this address
29 King Square, Goswell Road - about 1829 - 23rd March 1835 - The British Museum have a Baxter business card which shows this address and also states "Orders also received by R Harrild 11 Great Distaff Lane, St Pauls" - it can be seen by clicking here
3 Charterhouse Square - 23rd March 1835 - 27th March 1844 - This address was used by his ex-apprentices Gregory, Collins and Reynolds between 1846 and 1849
Image shows 3 Charterhouse Square , possibly circa 1940 / 50's - image courtesy and copyright of friends of GeorgeBaxter.com
11 Northampton Square - 27th March 1844 (an advert in The Patriot states the 25th?) - to the latest 24th May 1851 - Courtney Lewis says autumn of 1851 but Baxter's print of the Large Exterior of the Great Exhibition shows the address as 11 & 12 Northampton Square and has engraved on the plate as published 27th May 1851.
An advert in The Daily News on the 10th May 1851 states the Great Exhibition print is 'Just Published' and the address quoted as 11 Northampton Square. Then an advert in The Ladies Own Paper dated 24th May 1851 advertises the same print but this time states the address as 11 & 12 Northampton Square. This must date the move from No 11 to No's 11 & 12 as to between the 11th and the 24th May. Copies of both adverts, as well as many others can be found HERE. Interesting as it also raises a query about the publication date of the large Exterior, could there be another version of this print with a publication date prior to 27th May?
Mornington Crescent - Courtney Lewis in the Story of Picture Printing relates a story that Bradshaw (of Bradshaw & Blacklock) met Baxter at this address to discuss the possibility of taking a licence, this would have been some time shortly after August 1850. This was confirmed by Bradshaw's son who was at the meeting and CL states "saw Baxter at Mornington Crescent, where he was residing at the time". Obviously a personal rather than a business address but I can't trace any other mention. Although we believe that, especially in the early days, Baxter would have lived at his business addresses there must have been times when, due to an ever growing business, this was not possible. Perhaps when he took over the adjacent property at No 12 Northampton Square in 1851 he may have moved there with his family.
11 & 12 Northampton Square - from between 11th May and 24th May 1851 to early 1860's - please see details above for 11 Northampton Square and 12 below.
12 Northampton Square - early 1860's - 1865 - Baxter gave up No 11 some time in the early 1860's. By May 1860 he had tried to retire and he was most probably residing full time at The Retreat. He is only stated as at No 12 when Baxter exhibited at the International Exhibition of 1862 and also on his republication label of 1864. Mr Beane said to have held an auction of Baxter's plant etc at the premises Tuesday 26th and Wednesday 27th July 1864. His Bankruptcy also used this address in January 1865. As he sold all his plates and blocks to Vincent Brooks in 1865 this is most probably the time he gave up this business address (see below).
Red Lion Court, Off Fleet Street- 1865 - Clarke's 'Baxter Prints Pictorially Presented' states that Vincent Brooks Jr remembers that when his father purchased Baxter's Plates he and George Baxter Jr collected them from a warehouse in Red Lion Court. This must mean that by the time Vincent Brooks purchased the plates Baxter must had moved from Northampton Square, this also helps to date VB's purchase of the plates as after Baxter's bankruptcy in 1865.
To the left a view of 11 and 12 Northampton Square, note the plaque on No 12 that was 'unveiled' to Baxter's memory on the 22nd Sept 1928 - To the right a close up of No 11 - Morning Call can now be recognised as this Baxter Print shows a Chimney Sweep knocking at the door of number 11. These images are most probably circa 1940 / 50's before the buildings were demolished to make way for the City University in 1967 - a plaque is now on the walls of the university - images courtesy and copyright of friends of georgebaxter.com
The Retreat, Sydenham - 1860 - 1867. Baxter acquired the land from his father in law's estate. He built a large timber house and laid out the extensive gardens. It appears he initially used this as a weekend 'retreat' but moved there permanently in 1860, perhaps the reason he gave up No. 11 Northampton Square (or vice versa), which up until then most probably had been the family's home as well as business address.
A listing in an 1867 catalogue from an Exhibition which didn't open until 3 months after his death, shows him still advertising from this address, more to be written on this interesting snippet of information.
Image of the only known photograph of the Retreat, a timber built building designed by Baxter, he is shown sitting on the steps - possibly this is the original photograph then reproduced in George Baxter his Life and Work in 1908
No 4 St George's Terrace, Hyde Park - 1865 - This address is used in various legal notices at the time of his bankruptcy stating "late of The Retreat..." Most probably this address was only an accommodation address during this time to deflect people from his 'real' home.