Was Andrew Holland an apprentice of George Baxter?
Andrew Holland was born in 1828 in Hampshire, England, his brother George was born in 1830. Their father was a farmer but they obviously ventured in a different direction as in 1851 we find them in lodgings at Slater Street, Manchester where both were described as printers.
They both can be traced arriving in America on the Niagara on the 22nd March 1852, again being described as printers, Andrew at least lived his whole life in the Boston area. In 1855 Andrew married Hannah Cox, born in Stanwick, England who had come to the U.S. in 1853. They had 6 or 7 children including a son Charles. Charles married Sarah Robinson in Boston in 1887 and their child was Mildred (Millie).
Engraved by Kilburn & Mallory, Boston, printed by A. Holland, Boston. Copyright by George G. Spurr. - Public domain
Recently I was contacted by Millie’s Grand Daughter and sent a copy of a letter that was written by Sarah, (Millie’s mother) most probably between 1919 and 1941 but most likely after 1928 when Charles had died. It states that Charles worked for Kilburn & Cross (possibly through his father’s connection, see note at foot). It goes on to say “His (Charles’s) father was apprenticed to George Baxter in London Eng and came to America in the early (18) 50’s. He had one of the first colour printers shops in the country.”
It is going to be near impossible to prove 100% that he was apprenticed to George Baxter, although, hopefully, some relative may still have his apprenticeship indenture? Most of Baxter’s apprentice’s names are known due to the fact that many made a written petition against the renewal of Baxter’s Patent in 1849. If Holland was still apprenticed to him and so didn’t want to antagonise his employer or just plain didn’t want to be involved in the opposition to Baxter’s Patent renewal his name might never be recorded anywhere.
I would like to thank Kirsty Exton for giving us the dates and details of their arrival in the US and also the address in Manchester, this is interesting as could it mean that at that time they were working for Bradshaw & Blacklock (a licensee of Baxter) also based in Manchester. Our own Baxter Apprentices page states “Apprentices usually began between the ages of 12 and 15 but sometimes as young as 7. The contract their parents signed bound them to the Master for usually 7 years, although it could be as many as 9 years.”
We know that Andrew was still at home in 1841, so in theory he could have easily been apprenticed to Baxter and completed his term before working for Bradshaw & Blacklock. A number of Baxter’s apprentices / employees ended up working for his licensees including one of Baxter’s block cutters, Charles Hall who also went to work for Bradshaw & Blacklock. These transfers of staff could have been part of the ‘training’ Baxter gave when they purchased a licence. Bradshaw & Blacklock had taken a licence from Baxter in 1849.
Holland working for Baxter or Bradshaw & Blacklock is purely conjecture on my part but the time lines and address make it quite feasible, either way to be printers they had to have been apprenticed or learnt there trade somewhere, so why not Baxter?
Noted below is some background information in approximate date order regarding Andrew Holland a printer based at various addresses, all in the Boston area, and seems to have done a lot of with the Boston engraver SS Kilburn. There is no reason to think that they are not all the same A Holland.
Can anyone help with any information on Andrew Holland in general or most importantly anything that can confirm he was apprenticed to George Baxter?
As Andrew appears to have done quite an amount of work with SS Kilburn I start with a brief history of that company:
From Wikipedia: Samuel Smith Kilburn (1831—1903) was an engraver in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 19th century. He trained with Abel Bowen. Kilburn's work appeared in popular periodicals such as Gleason's Pictorial. His business partners included Richard P. Mallory (Kilburn & Mallory) and Henry C. Cross. (Kilburn & Cross as noted in Sarah’s letter?)
Kilburn & Mallory became SS Kilburn at 96 Washington Street Boston see:
So presumably Kilburn & Cross came later – they are appear in the Boston Directory 1886
The general specimen book of the Dickinson Type Foundry, : comprising types for letter-press printing of every variety. : Foundry commenced in the year 1840, by the late S.N. Dickinson, a distinguished printer and type founder. : Address the proprietors, Phelps and Dalton, no. 52 Washington Street, Boston, Mass.
Spine title: Dickinson Type Foundry specimens. On cover: Phelps & Dalton, Dickinson Type Foundry, Boston, Mass.
"Advertisement" signed: Phelps & Dalton, successors to the late S.N. Dickinson.
"Dickinson Type Foundry, Phelps & Dalton, Boston."--At foot of most specimen pages.
"Andrew Holland, pressman."--Title page verso.
Adventures of three little crows
Publisher:[New York] : Ross & Tousey, agents. Printed in oil colors, by Andrew Holland, 30 Hawley St., Boston, Mass., [between 1856 and 1862?].
The history of little Bo-Peep, the shepherdess : shewing [sic] how she lost her sheep and could'nt [sic] tell where to find them.
A fairy tale loosely based on the traditional rhyme.
"A. Holland, printer, 21 School St., Boston."--Page  of printed wrapper. Shepard, Clark and Brown published in Boston from 1857 to 1859. Andrew Holland is not listed at 21 School St. in contemporary Boston directories. He is first listed in business under his own name in 1859, at 3 Doane St.
Wrapper printed in red and blue ink.
Last page blank.
Star-spangled banner (Song)
Printed by A. Holland, 17 Doane St, [1860 or 1861] / Kilburn & Mallory, engraver.
Songs for my children
Illustrations engraved by Kilburn-Mallory and printed in colors by A. Holland.
Engraved by Kilburn & Mallory, Boston, printed by A. Holland, Boston. (20 Washington Street – 1862) Copyright by George G. Spurr.
The Picture alphabet.
Wrapper title: Aunt Louie's picture book. Alphabet in rhyme.
Snow, Boyden & Knight published at 1 Cornhill, Boston, between 1865 and 1868. "Andrew Holland, wood cut printer, 36 Washington St. Boston."--Page  of wrapper. Holland was in business at 36 Washington St. from 1864 to 1869.
Stiff-paper wrapper printed in red and blue ink.
Trade card at 36 Washington Street Boston – (unknown date)
Specimen of designing and engraving on wood / S.S. Kilburn
Main Author: Kilburn, Samuel Smith
Published: Boston : Printed by A. Holland, [1865+] at 37 Bowker Street
A. Holland is listed in the 1870 and 1885 Boston City Directories - as either a "woodcut & color printer" or "woodcut & oil color printer." Andrew died in Medford in 1888.
Andrew’s son Charles Holland is listed in the 1885 directory as "wood engraver" at the same address as Kilburn & Cross but I can’t find any other connection to these two parties perhaps he was an employee rather than running his own business? Charles had moved to California in approx. 1903 and had a business in San Francisco before the 1906 earthquake and lived in Berkeley. He had also worked for a company called, either Sutter Engravers or Sutter Printers. He moved to Sacramento in the early 1900s and died in 1928."
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